José M. Durão Barroso is former President of the European Commission (2004-2014) and served as Prime Minister of Portugal (2002 to 2004). He started his political career in government in 1985 and served as state secretary for home affairs, state secretary for foreign affairs and cooperation, and minister for foreign affairs. His academic appointments included visiting professor of Georgetown University and visiting professor at Princeton University. He is currently a visiting professor at the Catholic University of Portugal and at the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies in Geneva. José Manuel Barroso graduated in Law from the University of Lisbon and completed an M.A. in Political Science from the University of Geneva. He is currently Chairman of Goldman Sachs International.